Past Cities

Aurangabad, Bihar, India

Aurangabad, located in the state of Bihar, India, is a city steeped in rich history, shaped by its political environment and unique geography. With its diverse population and vibrant cultural heritage, Aurangabad stands as a testament to the ebb and flow of civilizations that have left an indelible mark on its landscape.

Aurangabad is home to a diverse populace, comprising people from various religious, linguistic, and ethnic backgrounds. As of the last available data in 2021, the city's population stood at approximately 1.4 million residents. The majority of the population practices Islam, followed by Hinduism, and a significant minority of Sikhs and Christians. The city's demographic composition reflects its historical significance as a melting pot of cultures, languages, and religions.

The history of Aurangabad can be traced back to ancient times, with references to the city in Buddhist and Jain scriptures. However, it gained prominence during the medieval period under the rule of different dynasties. One of the most significant chapters in Aurangabad's history was during the reign of the Mughals, particularly under Emperor Aurangzeb, after whom the city is named.

Aurangzeb made Aurangabad his capital in the 17th century, leading to a period of unprecedented growth and development. The city became a center of administration, trade, and culture. Its strategic location on the trade route between northern India and the Deccan plateau further enhanced its importance. The Mughals left an indelible architectural legacy, including the iconic Bibi Ka Maqbara, a mausoleum built in the memory of Aurangzeb's wife.

The political environment of Aurangabad has played a pivotal role in shaping its destiny. During the medieval period, the city witnessed power struggles among various dynasties, including the Mughals, the Nizams of Hyderabad, and the Marathas. These political transitions often impacted the city's governance, economy, and cultural landscape.

Under the Nizams of Hyderabad, Aurangabad experienced a period of relative stability and prosperity. The city became a center for arts, literature, and education. However, with the decline of the Mughal Empire and the rise of Maratha power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Aurangabad came under Maratha rule. The Marathas established their authority in the region, and the city became an important military and administrative center.

Aurangabad's geography has significantly influenced its historical development. The city is situated on the banks of the Kham River, surrounded by fertile plains, making it agriculturally productive. The presence of water bodies facilitated trade and commerce, contributing to the city's economic growth.

Moreover, Aurangabad's proximity to the Ajanta and Ellora Caves, renowned UNESCO World Heritage Sites, has attracted tourists from across the globe. These ancient rock-cut caves, adorned with exquisite sculptures and paintings, serve as a testament to the artistic and architectural brilliance of the bygone eras.