Altamira is a city located in the state of Pará, Brazil. It is situated on the banks of the Xingu River, a tributary of the Amazon River, in the heart of the Amazon rainforest. The city has a rich history shaped by its political environment, geography, and the diverse communities that have inhabited the region over the centuries.
The origins of Altamira can be traced back to the indigenous tribes that inhabited the area long before the arrival of Europeans. The city sits on land that was once home to several indigenous groups, including the Xipaya, Juruna, and Arara peoples. These communities had a deep connection with the land and relied on the abundant resources of the Amazon rainforest for their sustenance and way of life.
With the arrival of European colonizers in the 18th century, the region went through significant changes. Altamira, originally called "Vila de São Joaquim do Rio Xingu," was founded in 1758 by Portuguese settlers. The Portuguese established small settlements along the Xingu River to facilitate trade and extract valuable resources from the region. Altamira became an important point for the exploration and exploitation of natural resources, including rubber, timber, and minerals, which attracted a diverse population of migrants from different parts of Brazil.
The political environment of Altamira has played a significant role in its history. The region witnessed a series of conflicts and power struggles. During the 19th century, the rubber boom attracted wealthy landowners and foreign companies to the area. The extraction of rubber resulted in the exploitation of indigenous communities and the destruction of large areas of the rainforest. The economic interests of rubber barons clashed with the rights and interests of the indigenous peoples, leading to conflicts over land and resources.
In the early 20th century, the construction of the Trans-Amazon Highway brought further changes to Altamira. The road connected the city to the rest of Brazil, opening up the region to agricultural development and colonization. This led to an influx of settlers from other parts of the country, primarily from the southern states. The arrival of these settlers had a profound impact on the demography and culture of Altamira, contributing to a growing population and the establishment of new economic activities.
The geographic location of Altamira, surrounded by the Amazon rainforest, has shaped the city's development and relationship with the natural environment. The region's rich biodiversity and natural resources have attracted both economic opportunities and environmental challenges. The deforestation caused by logging, agriculture, and infrastructure projects has had a significant impact on the ecosystem and the lives of local communities.
One of the most controversial projects in the history of Altamira is the construction of the Belo Monte Dam, which began in the 2010s. The dam, one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the world, has faced fierce opposition from indigenous communities, environmental activists, and international organizations. The dam's construction has led to the displacement of indigenous peoples, the destruction of habitats, and the disruption of river ecosystems. It has become a symbol of the conflicts between development, environmental preservation, and the rights of local communities in the Amazon region.
Altamira's population has grown steadily over the years. According to the most recent data available, the city had approximately 114,000 inhabitants as of 2021. The population is diverse, consisting of indigenous peoples, descendants of European settlers, migrants from other parts of Brazil, and a growing number of urban dwellers.